WDYTYA? Hearts

[This post was first published on 8 November 2013.]

The Lenormand deck combines traditional German cartomancy with pictorial symbolism. In Vier Farben and The Fox and the Snake I explored its cartomantic origins. In The Spaewife: I spy I explored its pictorial symbolism, the origins of which can be traced back to earlier coffee grounds symbolism and dream symbolism, and compared symbol meanings for one particular card. Here I flesh out the Lenormand family tree by comparing these symbol meanings for each card in the four main families: Grün (also known as Green or Spades), Roth (also known as Red or Hearts), Eichel (also known as Acorns or Clubs) and Schellen (also known as Bells or Diamonds).

A♥ (Man):
1737 (dreams): Not listed.
1769 (coffee): Not listed.
1796 (coffee pack): The Pedestrian. Denotes in general a merchant, good business, pleasant news, and recovery of lost things. It also signifies that the consulting party will soon enlist, or get some engagement.
1798 (coffee): Not listed.
1805 (dreams): If a woman dreams that she beats her husband, it indicates that she is loved by him.
1846 (Lenormand deck): Gentleman, is the dominant card of the game, as well as the following No. 29 [Lady/Woman], and shows us the happiness or the misfortune of the person that consults the cards.

K♥ (House):
1737 (dreams): To build a house, promises happiness; to tear down a house, misfortune; to see a house fall down, dispute with neighbours: to see old houses, threatens contempt.
1769 (coffee): Not listed.
1796 (coffee pack): The House. Indicates, at the top of the cup, blessing and success in all your enterprises; if your situation be then not the most favourable, you may hope that it soon will change for the better. In the middle, or below, it cautions you to be vigilant over your servants, as your vigilance alone will prevent your being injured.
1798 (coffee): House, joy.
1805 (dreams): House. Good hope of speedy change of circumstances of fortune.
1846 (Lenormand deck): House, means success and prosperity in all enterprises. Even when the present situation of the person is unfortunate, they can expect a better future. If this card is located in the middle of the game, under the person, this is a hint to be on their guard regarding those who surround them.

Q♥ (Stork):
1737 (dreams): Not listed.
1769 (coffee): A stork means a change of location.
1796 (coffee pack): Not listed.
1798 (coffee): Not listed.
1805 (dreams): To see a stork means a change of location.
1846 (Lenormand deck): Stork, close to the person, indicates a change of current residence, from afar it marks that this change is delayed.

J♥ (Heart):
1737 (dreams): Not listed.
1769 (coffee): A heart, with an apple located inside it, means a noble and sincere nature. A heart, with many points inside it, means a changeable and fickle nature.
1796 (coffee pack): The Heart. If it be in the clear, it signifies future pleasure. It promises joy at receiving some money, if surrounded with dots. If a ring, or two hearts be together, it signifies, that the party is about to be married or betrothed; if a letter be perceptible near it, it shows the initial of the person’s name; if the letter be in the clear, the party is a virgin; if in the thick, a widow.
1798 (coffee): Heart, good news.
1805 (dreams): Not listed.
1846 (Lenormand deck): Heart, sign of joy, of happiness, and of harmony.

10♥ (Dog):
1737 (dreams): To see dogs, indicates profit: to tease dogs, that one will talk to one’s enemies: if they fawn, it means a trap. To hear strange dogs barking, indicates strife and adversity: to see dogs catch game, announces, that one will obtain foreign goods.
1769 (coffee): Dogs mean good messengers and newspaper deliverers.
1796 (coffee pack): The Dog. Being at all times the emblem of fidelity or envy, has also a two-fold meaning here. At the top, in the clear, it signifies true and faithful friends, but if his image be surrounded with clouds and dashes, it shows that those whom you take for your friends are not to be depended on; but if the dog be at the bottom of the cup, you have to dread the effects of extreme envy or jealousy.
1798 (coffee): Dog, joy.
1805 (dreams): Dogs mean loyalty, bravery and affection. If a dog barks at us, this indicates slander by enemies. Dogs mean good messengers and newspaper deliverers.
1846 (Lenormand deck): Dog, very near, assures a faithful one, friendship, very far it indicates treason, surrounded by clouds it warns one not to trust those that call themselves our friends.

9♥ (Rider):
1737 (dreams): Not listed.
1769 (coffee): Not listed.
1796 (coffee pack): The Rider. Denotes good news from abroad, in money matters, a good situation in a foreign, or good prospects. He that doubts his fortune, is promised a lasting one by this emblem.
1798 (coffee): Rider, present.
1805 (dreams): Rider indicates a lasting happiness to those who doubt it.
1846 (Lenormand deck): Rider, indicates good news, but a little removed, it can have to do with the residence of the person, or arrival from a foreign country. This card is a messenger of good fortune, when it is not surrounded by sinister cards.

8♥ (Moon):
1737 (dreams): Moon, if bright, generally means profit, travel and sea journeys; if pale, death; if dark, means displeasure of great men, or noble women.
1769 (coffee): Not listed.
1796 (coffee pack): The Moon. If it appears in the clear, it denotes high honours, in the dark or the thick part, it implies sadness, which will however pass without great prejudice. But if it be at the bottom of the cup, the consulting party will be very fortunate both by water and land.
1798 (coffee): Not listed.
1805 (dreams): If the moon shines bright and clear, it means high honour; if it is cloudy, it foretells sorrow, misfortune at sea and on land.
1846 (Lenormand deck): Moon, is a sign of great honour, if this card is located next to the person, on the contrary, if it is distant it announces misfortune.

7♥ (Tree):
1737 (dreams): Tree, means lineage, also food and prosperity; with fruit it points to profit: Barren tree, misfortune and damage.
1769 (coffee): Trees mean favourable, well-meaning friends.
1796 (coffee pack): The Tree. One tree only, be it in clear, or thick part, points out lasting good health; several trees denote that your wish will be accomplished. If they are encompassed with dashes, it is a token that your fortune is in its blossom, and will require some time to bring it to maturity. If they are accompanied by dots, it is a sign that you will make your fortune in the country where you reside.
1798 (coffee): Trees with fruit, income. Trees without fruit, loss.
1805 (dreams): To climb a tree, indicates honour; to fall off the contrary. To see trees, means beneficial, well-meaning friends.
1846 (Lenormand deck): Tree, far from the person, is a sign of health, several together do not leave any doubt on the accomplishment of their wishes or on a brilliant fortune in the future.

6♥ (Stars):
1737 (dreams): To see bright and clear stars, means good fortune. Beautiful, bright stars mean joy and benefits; pale and dark, misery.
1769 (coffee): Not listed.
1796 (coffee pack): The Star. Denotes happiness if in the clear, and at the top of the cup; clouded or in the thick it signifies long life, though exposed to various troubles. If dots are about it, it foretells great fortune, wealth, high respectability, &c. Several stars denote so many good and happy children, but surrounded with dashes, shows that your children will cause you grief and vexation in your old age, and that you ought to prevent it by giving them a good education in time.
1798 (coffee): Not listed.
1805 (dreams): To see one or several stars generally means fortune.
1846 (Lenormand deck): Star confirms happiness in all enterprises, but if surrounded by clouds, it indicates extended misfortune.

All symbols:
1769 (coffee): The higher the signs are, the sooner the events will manifest; and where they are lower and closer to the bottom, one also encounters numbers, which mean days or months.

[Image: Modern Minimalist Lenormand by Melissa Haney licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License]

1737 (dreams): Der wohlerfahrne Wein-Gärtner und sorgfältige Wein-Schenck, ostensibly a book about wine farming published in Esslingen in 1756, contains a Traum-Büchlein ("Dream book") listing 222 dream symbol meanings on pages 516–536. I also found an earlier source dated 1737 containing the same symbol meanings, see pages 414–432 of Anleitung zu denen curiösen Wissenschaften.

1769 (coffee): Abhandlung der Physiognomie, Metoposcopie und Chiromantie (Treatise on physiognomy, metoposcopy and chiromancy) by Christian Adam Peuschel, a Lutheran pastor, published in Leipzig in 1769 includes an appendix titled Das Caffeeschaalengießen listing over 30 coffee grounds symbol meanings on pages 389–396.

1796 (coffee pack): Les Amusemens des Allemands; or, The Diversions of the Court of Vienna, British Museum number 1982,U.4637.1–32 (see More views for card images and booklet)

1798 (coffee): Ausführliche Beschreibung der Sprachmaschinen oder sprechenden Figuren (Detailed description of speaking machines or speaking figures) by Heinrich Maximilian Brunner, a doctor of medicine and philosophy, published in Nuremberg in 1798 contains a list of over 80 coffee grounds symbols including some very brief meanings on pages 146–150, which the author says is needed in order for humans or machines to explain the figures.

1805 (dreams): Ganz neu aufgelegtes Traumbüchlein aus den Papieren einer alten Frau, daraus ein jeder Lotto spielender Liebhaber seine Träume untersuchen und darauf in der Lotterie sich glücklich machen kann. Durch erprobte Erfahrung verbessert und auf’s Neue in Druck gebracht. (Brand new issue of a dream book from the papers of an old woman, from which every lottery enthusiast can explore their dreams and make themselves fortunate in the lottery. Improved through proven experience and newly printed.) contains an appendix titled Anhang und Auslegung der Träume, nach Art der Egyptier, nebst den Nummern der Lotterie, die solche bedeuten ("Appendix and interpretation of dreams, according to the method of the Egyptians, together with the corresponding lottery numbers") listing over 200 dream symbol meanings on pages 52–63. An 1861 edition published in Augsburg, Bavaria, is viewable online (linked above). I found online references to earlier editions, including one published in Augsburg in 1805, and it was listed as a banned book in Bavaria in 1844. See footnote on pages 96–97 of Ideen über die Bildung eines freien germanischen Staaten-Bundes (Leipzig, 1814) and page 15 of Index librorum prohibitorum (Jena, 1845).

1846 (Lenormand deck): Helen Riding (June 2012), "Book communicates a secret"